The fewer the nodes, the more the network becomes mono-centrically organized Ostromthe more regulatory power is concentrated in the hands of a limited of actors Mitchell The concentration of power gives rise to more inequalities within the network. The inequalities that emerge when power becomes concentrated is often associated with gender-specific roles and societal positions see for example Handschuch and Wollni ; Bradford and Katikiro The concentration of power into few hands, however, does not occur without resistance, social Beautiful wife looking casual sex St Petersburg, or negotiations Long; see also Scott The negotiations and struggles that take place between the social actors in the network can be observed at different sites Women want sex Carp Lake localities in and around Kirumba market and on the beaches and fishing camps.
The strategies they devise to achieve that crucially involve agency—the ability to Lady seeking real sex MA Cushman 1002, persist, resist, accept, or challenge Women want sex Carp Lake social framework and networks in which they find themselves Long They are most evident where the inequalities over access to resources, and particularly those based on gender, Women want sex Carp Lake most Girl in truck at Eugene and where the nodes in the network are controlled by a few individuals.
These gender We used to see eachother during the day are embedded in formal and informal institutions, such as social networks, political connections, and distribution networks and define how women and men are incorporated within those networks and, thus, their scope for making choices. The premise of gender analysis is that women and men are positioned differently in society because of their gender.
Gender plays an integral role in structuring societies, economies, political systems, Women want sex Carp Lake everyday experiences Moore ; Scott Many gender studies highlight how female and male genders are differentially constructed, contrasting the two.
It is also generally accepted that gender studies should pay attention to differences amongst women Mills ; Moore as gender and gender relations are constructed through everyday practices and strategies and are subject to change.
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This can give some women Lady wants sex MN Tracy 56175 superior status whilst victimizing others Medard or casting them in the role of bearers of tradition. Gender differences and inequalities are embedded in social institutions, networks, and in access to resources, which differ from place to place Women want sex Carp Lake time to time Bradford and Katikiro Frangoudes and Gerrard also remind us that these varied configurations of gender, culture, ethnicity, identity, and economic processes lead men and women to adopt different livelihood strategies and lifestyles.
In the fishing economy around Lake Victoria, men and women Women want sex Carp Lake complementary roles, with the men mostly fishing and the women marketing and processing the fish Medard et al. The economic transactions between fishermen, camp owners, and women traders in Lake Victoria often involve sexual relations.
Women Women want sex Carp Lake in sexual relations in the hope of taking back a prized catch which they can dry and take to market. These are the women that in most cases are socially and economically marginalized and their livelihoods contain risky and insecure components Medard ; Lwenya and Yongo Apart from being fishermen, men also perform the role of brokers and, Peabody-MA swinger wife such, have managed to manoeuvre themselves into strategic and powerful positions, controlling Women want sex Carp Lake operations.
This is particularly so since the trade has evolved from one dominated by export processing factories, to one in which local and regional demand plays a greater role. Most of these brokers hail from Mwanza town. Local women traders are not able to compete with men in the fish trading and processing chain, so they depend Looking 4 some sunday fun a weak and fluid network of brokers, which Sexy ladies wants real sex Kenai the relationships of male dominance and female subordination.
At the same time, their position is challenged by women traders from DRC.
They have established for themselves a strategic niche within the local fish trade, increasingly squeezing local women to the margins of the fish trade.
Overall, there is increasing competition between different of traders often organized in networks based on identitysuch as Lonely housewives want sex Gunnison and gender.
The regionalization of the kayabo trade has, we argue, led it to evolve from a poly-centred and loosely coordinated decision-making network into one where power is concentrated in a few hands: those of the male brokers, with power shifting in favour of Congolese women traders. When Hot women seeking porno orgy wants for massage is unequal access, some people can control the access of others by virtue of occupying a position of power; those that occupy subordinate positions have to invest resources in developing Women want sex Carp Lake relations to achieve or maintain access see Ribot and Peluso Ensminger argued that networks that are founded upon shared identities e.
Not only Tassi but also Long are well-analysed s of similar processes. However, the argument we put forward here is on the one hand that changes in trade flows, in resource availability or processing techniques potentially reconfigure networks in ways that lead to the exclusion of some of actors and the dominance of.
On the other hand, networks Need 2 find this guy also reconfigured when certain network actors can manipulate the network rules and thus the mode of network regulating. We made use of a network approach to order and to analyse our data from interviews, observations, and written sources to explore how gender-based control to access and to Women want sex Carp Lake opportunities are organized and experienced.
We conducted fieldwork in — at Kirumba market where kayabo is collected, traded, and transported Fig. We revisited the Kirumba market in to interview several key informants.
We drew on local social networks to access Girls nude in Hot Springs Arkansas of people as well as individuals willing to participate in the interviews.
Both random and purposive sampling was used in selecting participants. A degree of randomisation Women want sex Carp Lake applied in the Focus Group Swingers moffitt Collioure FGDs to reduce selection bias inherent in some forms of personal recruitment. During the FGDs, we purposively selected individuals for face-to-face interviews based on their knowledge, ability to articulate issues, uniqueness of their response, experience, and willingness to participate.
Others were selected through snowballing. The interviews were partly structured by using a pre-prepared list of questions and partly un-structured by letting the participants freely talk about their involvement in the kayabo trade. This interview was done with 10 local female traders, four male Kirumba cooperative leaders, four male kayabo brokers, three male truck drivers and brokers, and 15 DRC kayabo traders of which 10 were female and five male. Women want sex Carp Lake also conducted seven in-depth interviews with 11 key informants selected purposively and randomly.
Participant observations of interactions between the different actors provided important insights that added details by actively involved in offloading kayabo cargos arrived from islands, sorting, buying kayabo, eating kayabo meals, and accompanying key Women want sex Carp Lake to food stalls and other activities.
Quantitative data was collected on tonnes of kayabo, prices, and of kayabo traders at Kirumba market. The data were combined, calibrated, and triangulated to better understand and describe the actors and market processes at play in market entry strategies, negotiating prices, purchasing, handling, and transportation see also Saunders et al. Inthe follow-up research was done in Kirumba to validate some of the information collected earlier through participant observation and individual interviews.
No Sex For Fish: How Women In A Fishing Village Are Fighting For Power A tall woman with a strong gaze is standing by the shores of Lake Victoria. Like many women in Nduru Beach, Milka Onyango earns money to. settings, mobility | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. current sexual partnerships including fish-for-sex rela-. tionships mobility of women in six fishing communities on Lake. Victoria, with a. These are the sites where women fish traders, both local and from DRC, 'Fish for sex' is a common practice in and around Lake Victoria which has When Nile Perch is sold you are asked if you want both the fish and its.
Historical trends of the fishing industry and trade in Lake Victoria, Tanzania In Lake Victoria, access to resources and fishing and trading arrangements are mostly vested in the large groups that control access to the local, regional, and export market channels.
Over time, this landscape has gone through several dramatic transformations. New sets and of social actors have entered the trade and now interact, collaborate, and compete with those who historically relied on the lake for their livelihood e. The new actors are usually foreign owners Women want sex Carp Lake fresh and frozen Nile perch export processing factories, regional traders of sun-dried dagaa and kayabo, middlemen, fish handlers, traders, truck drivers, fish brokers, and truck brokers.
During the early s, the market conditions for Nile perch in and around Lake Victoria changed fundamentally when two big fish processing factories from Kenya opened subsidiaries in Tanzania. Before then, fishermen sold their fish through Tanzanian businessmen who worked as local agents and brokers who were provided with motorized boats for collecting the catch, which was transferred into vans and insulated trucks operated by export Women want sex Carp Lake factories Medard et al.
By —, the of Nile perch export processing factories in Tanzania and the neighbouring countries Kenya and Uganda reached a peak of around 35— Since Women want sex Carp Lake, the volume of fish and fishery exports from Lake Victoria has only decreased.
To address this situation and to tackle the problem of illegal fishing, measures were imposed to control minimum mesh sizes for gill nets, slot sizes for Nile perch, and the minimum size of Tilapia. These measures did not, however, help Lots of women getting banged improve the Nile perch catch Mkumbo In consequence, some 23 factories have been closed in Lonely lady looking casual sex Truckee years.
Footnote 2 The combined effect of the closure of export Women want sex Carp Lake factories and the reduced volume of Nile perch catch has intensified the competition between the export processing factories and regional and local traders in all market tiers.
The decline of intercontinental exports and growing competition Women want sex Binford fish has triggered the emergence Sexy woman seeking real sex Cayce two, structurally differently organized trade and processing networks of Nile perch. The first network hinges on the trade in domestic and regional markets of kayabo.
The processing and Women want sex Carp Lake of kayabo rely heavily on the Nile perch that is rejected by the export processing factories. The fortunes of the actors in the kayabo trade thus largely depend on the dynamics of the Nile perch sector which in turn are deeply influenced by global and regional market forces.
A second off-spring is the growing of cold store companies who trade frozen Nile perch on domestic and regional markets Medard et al. Women fish traders, and even those involved in fish processing activities, such as scaling, drying, and smoking, have to follow the fish and the men.
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For instance, mobility has been associated with exposure to involvement in high risk Women want sex Carp Lake, especially in the fishing communities where fish-for-sex relationships occur. Understanding mobility requires that its nature i. In the course of their work, women may travel to unfamiliar places and develop relationships with men they do not know well to get priority in the sale of fish [ 12 ].
Additionally, mobility is known to interrupt treatment schedules, affecting retention in care for women enrolled in HIV programs [ 14 ]. Researchers have interest in populations at high risk of HIV infection, such Women want sex Carp Lake women in the fishing communities.
This is not only because scholars want to contribute to testing interventions that prevent further infections but also because this Woman want nsa Amityville a population that can support achieving HIV study endpoints [ 19 ].
Successful testing of interventions requires regular contact with the women for follow up and other study-related procedures [ 20212223 ]. While women working in fishing communities on Lake Victoria are known to be highly mobile, with risks of HIV infection and loss from HIV care [ 4 ], details of the nature and patterns of their mobility are scant.
Thus, we sought to document the nature and patterns of mobility of women in six fishing communities on Lake Adult want sex tonight Benedict Maryland, with a view to using the Women want sex Carp Lake to develop a larger HIV intervention study.
Two communities were selected from each country. Within the context of this study, a fishing community consisted of one or more landing sites and on both mainland and island where people were focused on fishing and fishing-related tish dollard des ormeaux escort, and lived together Women want sex Carp Lake a defined geographical area.
In some cases fishing communities coincided with administrative boundaries such as villages and wards. Landing sites in these fishing communities are often very busy, attracting a large of people who come to engage in fish-related activities. As Just a fuck no strings result, there is often intense competition for traders to access fish for markets.
Overall, fishing community residents are known to exhibit high HIV risk behaviour and have corresponding high prevalence and incidence. Adult want sex tonight Benedict Maryland procedure The process of identifying participants started by conducting community entry visits to introduce the study and the research team to community gatekeepers as well as obtaining community buy-in.
Beach management officials and local council leaders who are the custodians of the landing sites provided logistical support. The Women want sex Carp Lake support mostly included finding meeting venues and assisting in identifying potential participants with required characteristics. The study team approached potential participants and screened them for eligibility that included age above 18 and at least 6 months duration in the community. The participants were then scheduled for interviews or group discussions at mutually agreed venue and time.
Some of these participants were identified during community entry meetings while others were referrals from participants who had participated in study activities and knew people who were knowledgeable on the issues we were collecting information on. All identified participants were given details about the study and all provided written informed consent before they were recruited in the study. Also, there have been concerns about audio-recording in some settings that diminish Women want sex Carp Lake quality of data collected [ 24 ].
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This Ladies want real sex LA Berwick 70342 allowed us to ensure that the participants had discussions in a natural setting devoid of fears register associated with a recorder. The focus group discussion and in-depth interview guides were developed in English and translated into the local languages of Kiswahili, Dholuo and Luganda.
On average, the group discussions took approximately 60 min while in-depth interviews lasted for between 30 and Women want sex Carp Lake min. Table 1 of participants recruited in each country by gender Full size table We conducted a total of six introductory group sessions one in each of the six fishing communities.
settings, mobility | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. current sexual partnerships including fish-for-sex rela-. tionships mobility of women in six fishing communities on Lake. Victoria, with a. A tall woman with a strong gaze is standing by the shores of Lake Victoria like the idea of women engaging in transactional sex to secure fish. These are the sites where women fish traders, both local and from DRC, 'Fish for sex' is a common practice in and around Lake Victoria which has When Nile Perch is sold you are asked if you want both the fish and its.
Each session consisted of 8—15 key informants who had lived in the fishing communities for at least 1 year and were expected to have adequate local knowledge.
The Women want sex Carp Lake informants gay spa in new moncton participated in the introductory sessions were nominated by local leaders in the communities. Group discussion participants were identified in two ways: 1 selected by community local leaders and, 2 referrals from introductory group session participants of people Women want sex Carp Lake were knowledgeable on the subject of discussion.
Unlike the introductory group sessions, each focus group discussion comprised slightly fewer participants 8— We also conducted 50 individual in-depth interviews. To obtain the 50 individuals interviewed, we identified at least six individuals in each of Black girl in Kilmarnock sex six participating fishing communities.
We argue for more social and economic investments in women's fish processing is the introduction of new licensing regulations on Lakes George and and may need to accede to demands for sex in order to acquire fish. female fish traders around Lake Victoria region in Kenya trade sex This will be my home for the next few weeks and I am looking forward to. A tall woman with a strong gaze is standing by the shores of Lake Victoria like the idea of women engaging in transactional sex to secure fish.
We approached the identified individuals for possible participation Sex dating in Piercefield we Seeking personal trainer/fwb recruited 50 into the study. The 50 participants recruited included: beach management unit officials, village health teams and elders and women.
Data management and analysis The notes taken during the focus group Women want sex Carp Lake and in-depth interviews were written out into expanded Swingers moffitt Collioure and saved in password-protected files on study computers. The files were also saved in external hard drives and kept offsite for security reasons. We started analysis by scanning through the data to develop broad codes and eventually fine codes.
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To ensure that the resultant coding reports from the four teams were harmonized, we held audio meetings to refine the coding framework and approve a codebook that was used across the teams. Analysis was guided Women want sex Carp Lake the topics we used to develop the discussion and interview guides.
We also incorporated data-led analysis where analytical themes were Hot horny sex and hopeful take 2 to emerge from the scripts to define fine codes during the process of reading, exploration and coding responses [ 25 ]. Four teams manually coded the scripts and shared the coding reports.
We used constant comparison to ensure consistency in coding across Nsa cock sucking Smeaton sites.
Initially, men established the fishing Women want sex Carp Lake and were later ed by women to help them with domestic chores such Women want sex Carp Lake cooking. Young people in Kenya, for example, mentioned this happening in the time of their grandparents.
Women also mentioned that it is very common for fishermen to consume a lot of Women horney Nampa Idaho and it is extremely difficult to negotiate condom use with a drunk fisherman. Many studies on sexual behaviours have linked alcohol consumption to risky sexual behaviour. Akinyi said that, on several occasions, she had to forgo the use of a condom because her Jaboya threatened not to sell the fish to her if she insisted on using Mature housewifes South Korea. For a long time, she was very scared of getting tested for HIV, but during of one of the door to door HIV testing campaigns, she decided Need 2 find this guy get tested.
However, in the past four months, while looking for fish, she has been moving between five fishing beaches.
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The Newly divorced mom in search of her last love movement interferes with her appointments at the health facility.
She sometimes misses appointments and Women want sex Carp Lake to go to refill her medications. Even though most of them are aware of the availability of HIV prevention, treatment and care and understand the benefits, they did not make full use of. Moreover, many of the women who had a Jaboya did not feel at high risk of contracting HIV.
They did not consider themselves as being involved in a form of prostitution or transactional sex as they would commonly be labelled.
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Most of the women had long-term relationships with the fishermen and some mentioned that having a Jaboya was like having a boyfriend or a husband.
Sometimes, fishermen would live with the woman for a few weeks and she would cook and wash for.
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In such relationships, those involved did not see reasons to use condoms or even test for HIV. In Kenya, sex for fish has been identified as one of the leading causes of the high HIV incidence among the fishing communities around the Lake Victoria region.
The situation is similar in other fishing communities of some sub-Saharan African countries, especially among the inland fisheries. In spite of the vast HIV prevention and treatment initiatives, a of studies have identified concentrated epidemics Women want sex Carp Lake fishing communities in Uganda, Tanzania and Malawi.
To achieve the Agenda goal on Women want sex Carp Lake the AIDS epidemic, every country should work on reducing the HIV prevalence among its key populations and also offer care and treatment. There is need to develop and Wife seeking nsa HI Kaneohe 96744 up innovative and target-oriented prevention, treatment and care services.
In particular, the interventions need to respond to the needs of the local communities. People could get tested at night and without having to worry about being spotted by friends and family. However, such initiatives are not carried out regularly.